Designing a learning and decision support software: WashEm

Behind the scenes of developing software-based learning and decision support tools for WASH practitioners

CAWST has been working with Action Contre Faim (ACF) and The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (LSHTM) to improve handwashing practices in emergency settings. The objective is to equip emergency practitioners with the knowledge and tools to intervene rapidly and effectively on hygiene behaviour. We are currently developing learning tools and a software-based decision-making tool to aid in the design of rapid, evidence-based programs.

The idea

The idea is simple: develop a software-based decision support tool (also known as an “expert system”) to help emergency practitioners develop hygiene programs that are more evidence-based. WASH managers and the field staff would use rapid formative research methods to gather data within a few days and use the tool in the web and desktop software to get ideas and assistance to build more impactful hygiene programs. Simple right?

The challenge being addressed is that most hygiene programs in emergencies are not designed with context in mind, are not evidence-based and don’t take into account the behavioural determinants of the population. Therefore, they do not provide the behavioural change intended.

The team

Using over fifteen years of experience in designing education and training tools for WASH practitioners, CAWST has brought together a diverse team from its staff to transform the learnings from the research of LSHTM and ACF. The team includes:

  1. Learning Advisors who have education and training experience for global WASH practitioners – from national field level staff to WASH Advisors
  2. Instructional Designers who develop effective learning tools to make complex concepts accessible to practitioners
  3. eLearning and media specialists who create interactive learning experiences in the digital world
  4. Graphic designers who bring visual creativity and brand identity in the learning and communication space
  5. Web and application developers who use an agile development approach to develop user-friendly web, mobile and desktop applications

The process

This process is highly iterative.  As the rapid formative research methods get refined through field testing in various emergency contexts and countries, the web/app development team are iteratively developing the software. The software includes a learning component and the decision support component. The decision support tool has a simulation mode (check it out here) and a live mode (still in development). The formative research methods, the learning and the decision support components will be tested over a  two year period with multiple “early” releases of the software for early adopters to try it out and provide feedback.

Getting it out there

Great ideas, research and products only have value if they are used. They only get used if people know about them. CAWST engaged its communication, marketing and design team to design the Wash’Em brand identity, the Wash’Em website, and an agile marketing and engagement plan. Our strategy includes the usual conference presentations, but we also will be using simulation and testing events, targeted Google Ads, Facebook and LinkedIn Ads as well as direct WASH sector influencer engagement. We are building a network of interested professionals and influencers in the WASH and behaviour change sectors. We will use early adopters to test the software as we iterate through its development.


Sneak peek and design details

 

1. The different use cases for the software

Use cases

 

2. How the expert system engine should work.

Expert System

 

3. Early draft example of questions asked by the decision support tool.

Decision support tool questions

 

4. Early draft recommendations from the decision support tool.

Decision support tool outputs

 


About this project

“This project is made possible by the generous support of the American people through the United States Agency for International Development (USAID). The contents are the responsibility of Action Contre La Faim (ACF), The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (LSHTM), and CAWST (Centre for Affordable Water and Sanitation Technology) and do not necessarily reflect the views of USAID or the United States Government.

Hygiene Research in DRC

Working in partnership, ACF, LSHTM, and CAWST are bringing together their experience and networks to develop deep understandings of the determinants of hand hygiene in emergency settings so as to contribute to the development of rapid and effective intervention tools.

CAWST has been working with Action Contre Faim (ACF) and The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (LSHTM) to improve handwashing practices among internally displaced people. The objective is to develop deep understanding of the determinants of hand hygiene in emergency settings, ultimately to equip emergency practitioners with the knowledge and tools to intervene rapidly and effectively on hygiene behaviour. We are currently developing learning tools and a software-based decision-making tool to aid in the design of rapid, evidence-based programs.

In her earlier blog post, Sian White, the project’s lead researcher, shared four research methods she has been using and what these had revealed so far in her exploratory fieldwork in Iraq. In this update, Sian discusses the work done in DRC, including the research objectives and methods used and some of the key findings from the qualitative research.

Study site: DRC

 


Cholera has been endemic in DRC since 1994. In the eastern provinces of North and South Kivu, cases are registered throughout the year with peaks at the end of the dry season. However, in 2017 DRC experienced its worst cholera outbreak in decades with almost 50,000 suspected cases and over 900 deaths registered between January and December. Minova, where the research took place, sits alongside Lake Kivu, a renowned reservoir for vibro cholera. There are also two informal IDP camps in Minova and many other IDPs living in the community.

 

Qualitative research

Methods

The research was designed based on the Behaviour Centred Design framework (Aunger and Curtis, 2016). This framework outlines a set of behavioural determinants. For each of these a handwashing specific definition of the determinant was developed as an output of the literature review. By reviewing handwashing literature and looking more broadly a method was then selected to explore each determinant in the framework.

Key preliminary findings from the qualitative research

Handwashing behaviour

Observations indicated that handwashing with soap and hand rising (with water alone) were rare in these locations. Handwashing with soap was only observed once among the 17 observation households. Handwashing rarely took place after using the toilet but hand rinsing was sometimes practiced before eating, and this was actively taught to children as part of good mannerly behaviour. Hands rinsing was most often motivated by disgust, that is to say that hands were washed when they were visibly dirty (e.g. after returning from the field). Despite the low prevalence of handwashing behaviour people were well aware of the benefits of handwashing and 98% of participants could explain the association between handwashing and disease transmission.

One of the main factors that prevented convenient handwashing was the absence of handwashing facilities. None of the urban houses we visited had a dedicated place for handwashing. In camps facilities had been built several years ago but were now damaged and non-functional. In rural areas some houses had built tippy-taps (as part of a prior Community-led Total Sanitation campaign) but none were observed to be used or working. In focus groups people reported that they disliked the design of the tippy-taps and saw them as a symbol of poverty that they were not willing to adopt. Both water and soap were considered valuable and therefore people were often reluctant to store them near the toilets or kitchens which were often unclean, shared spaces. During behaviour trials participants identified that one of the barriers to handwashing was that there was nothing to cue behaviour at the key times and this prompted several people to design and build handwashing facilities. They were able to do so in a short period of time, using local materials and at no cost.

Handwashing is not considered to be a worthwhile use of soap. Partly this is because NGOs have promoted the use of ash as a free alternative for handwashing. Handwashing with ash was practiced by some people, but was described as unpleasant and undesirable, resulting in it being used infrequently. Where soap is available in households it is normally laundry powder or laundry bar soap. Although soap is rarely distributed by NGOs, in cases where it is, it is the laundry bar soap that is normally procured. However, participants explained that they would never use this for handwashing as it smells unpleasant and makes their hands dry. In camps and among host community members people live very communally. It is common for people to share containers and tools, share food and give water to a neighbour if they are running low. It was considered acceptable to ask a neighbour for soap to do laundry or for bathing but the idea of asking for soap for handwashing was considered humorous and people reported that you would be seen as trying to be above others if you did so.

In this setting it was common for daily household earnings to be less than $US 2. Daily routines were entirely oriented around earning enough to buy food for that day. With these limited resources adults would normally only eat once a day. People explained that their constant hunger constrained their capacity to remember to be hygienic (for example this was the main reason people said they often forget to wash hands prior to food preparation or eating). In order to earn sufficient money, adults spend most of their day in the fields, leaving young children at home unaccompanied. Parents acknowledged that they were worried about their children’s hygiene during these hours, but felt powerless to change this situation. This suggests that in this context the nurture motive may be less appropriate to utilise to promote handwashing. Although handwashing was a socially desirable behaviour, observed transgressions in handwashing practice were rarely socially sanctioned. This was largely because people normally adopted a forgiving attitude towards such transgressions, assuming that others, like them, must be dealing with poverty, hunger and psychological trauma (due to conflict and displacement). Affiliation (the desire to belong in a social group and therefore conform to group behaviours) did not emerge as a strong motivator of handwashing in this context. During the motives activity people explained that many of their close friends have poor hygiene but this just due to their circumstances rather than their character. In contrast people were judgmental of the handwashing behaviour of their spouse and explained that they could not be attracted to someone if they did not have clean hands. People did think that at a community-level handwashing increased in response to the cholera outbreak. People thought that for the majority of people this would only cause a short-term change in behaviour, but for others it could result in improved habits.

Attitudes and experiences of cholera

All participants were well informed about cholera and able to explain all key transmission routes. In focus group discussions people ranked cholera as the health issue that they were most concerned about and thought that it was the health issue which most commonly affected members of their community. In contrast diarrhoea was considered a mild health issue that did not have severe consequences and was only due to ‘disagreeable food’. Despite this reported ‘fear’ of cholera people simultaneously felt that cholera was just like any other disease and their familiarity with it over the years had allowed them to develop the belief that it could easily be treated (for free) and therefore rarely resulted in death. Consistent with this, many research participants told us that ‘black people don’t die of germs’. This saying was used to rationalise the fact that although most people viewed their environment as dirty and contaminated, and often lacked the means to be hygienic, it was rarely perceived to have adverse consequences. These factors have contributed to cholera no longer being seen as an outbreak disease but rather as a chronic health problem that the population had to manage and tolerate.

Although participants knew that good hygiene practices could reduce the likelihood of getting cholera most people who had contracted cholera felt that in their case it must have been due to bad luck, with the high prevalence of cases causing hygienic people like themselves to fall ill. Since most people knew someone who had had cholera recently there was minimal stigma towards the disease. People perceived it as normal for young children and older people to get cholera – in both cases people explained that this was because it is hard to control their behaviour. However, if healthy adults contracted cholera this was still met with confusion and stigma. Adult cholera cases reported that friends tended not to visit them when they heard they had got cholera. Immediate family and neighbours did not tend to ‘stay away’ nor change their opinion of the person with cholera. These individuals often played an important role in helping the cholera patient to recover. In addition to proximity, this may explain why intra-household transmission and transmission between neighbouring households was common in this region (and is well documented in the literature). Another contributing factor in this region is that cholera case management and follow-up remains suboptimal. On discharge patients are given 7 water treatment tablets and a small bar of laundry soap (although often they do not receive either). Providing such a small amount of hygiene provisions has the effect of distorting people’s risk perception, facilitating beliefs that it is not necessary to sustain good hygiene behaviours in the long term. This is of particular concern given that cholera cases may continue shedding for up to 50 days post discharge.

Although people had strong attitudes towards cholera as a disease, people on average had a poor understanding of the socio-economic impact that it could have on a household. Cholera cases described that they often felt weak and were unable to fulfil their normal tasks for up to a month after being discharged. In a context like DRC where people are generally living in extreme poverty and need to work in order to put food on the table each day, this has a substantial impact on the family economy. With less available of money, people said that they were normally unable to afford products like soap in the weeks after being discharged. Additionally, having a cholera case in the household often meant that the family could not collect as much water as normal (either because the women of the household were personally affected or because they were involved in caring for male household members who were sick). Both of these factors obviously place other family members at higher risk of contracting cholera.

Lastly people tended to associate cholera with people who they viewed to be categorically different from themselves. In focus group discussions people described a typical cholera cases as someone who is already sickly, has little respect for themselves or others, is arrogant and is poor and uneducated. Host community members thought cholera more commonly affected IDPs, while IDPs felt that they often had to behave more hygienically in order to rise above their circumstances and were therefore less likely to get cholera than the host community.

Implications for practitioners

• Knowledge: Almost everyone understood the association between handwashing and disease transmission. This means that we can stop educating people about disease transmission as part of programs.
• Behavioural settings: Creating dedicated places for handwashing would help to reposition handwashing as a norm and act as a cue or reminder to prompt behaviour. Prior programs that have attempted to do this have installed facilities that are not considered pleasant to use and which break easily. New initiatives should incentivise family units or compounds to design and build their own facilities that are appealing and affordable. Doing these initiatives at the compound level could work well in this context since neighbours are already reliant on each other for many aspects of their daily lives. This would enable families to pool their resources so that they are able to purchase soap for handwashing. A collective commitment to handwashing among the compound members might make handwashing more social judged and therefore adhered to. This may also enable soap and water to be kept at the handwashing facilities.
• Products: There is a need to change perceptions towards soap. This may require organisations to reduce the extent to which they promote handwashing with ash. It will also require hygiene promotion activities that highlight the non-health benefits of soap, such as how nice hands smell afterwards or how soft they feel. This should be done through experiential learning (e.g. people trying different soap products and seeing how they smell). There may also be opportunities to work with women’s groups to rebrand/decorate locally produced soaps to make them more appealing.
• Supporting cholera cases upon discharge: Stronger efforts should be made to map where cholera cases reside and to support patients upon discharge. This will be critical for reducing transmission within the household and among neighbouring households. Tailored hygiene promotion and hygiene kits should be provided to families with a cholera case and their neighbours. Ideally cholera cases should receive hygiene provisions (e.g soap) sufficient for the first three months after their discharge (the period when they are still able to transmit the disease). The provision of hygiene products for this period should be staged. With some given immediately and further provisions given once the family has built a handwashing facility, for example.
 Shifting community perceptions towards cholera: Cholera is understood as a disease but its increasing familiarity is breeding complacency. Rather than continuing to tell people about the health risks of cholera it may be more effective to humanise the disease and emphasise other types of impacts that people are currently unaware of – such as the impact of cholera on household economies and on a person’s social relationships. It is important that this be done in a manner which is not just fearmongering but rather helps people to see a now familiar disease in a new light. One way of doing it would be to film short videos with people who have had cholera and get them to describe their personal experiences. These could then be taken house to house when doing hygiene promotion and shown on tablets/mobile devices.
• Motives: Disgust is currently the primary motivator of handwashing but could still be heightened by implementing activities like Glow Germs (www.glogerm.com). Motives that have been previously used to promote handwashing behaviour such as nurture and affiliation are likely to be less effective in this context than the motives of comfort and attract. One way that this could be done is by creating a picture or video-based narrative that links handwashing with romance and beauty or positions it as a way of feeling momentarily more comfortable despite difficult circumstances.
• Keeping a broad view: People in this context are under a lot of psychological and economic strain. Those delivering hygiene programs need to be mindful of the much bigger issues that people are facing and ideally connect people with other development initiatives which try to address these issues.

 

 


About this project

“This project is made possible by the generous support of the American people through the United States Agency for International Development (USAID). The contents are the responsibility of Action Contre La Faim (ACF), The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (LSHTM), and CAWST (Centre for Affordable Water and Sanitation Technology) and do not necessarily reflect the views of USAID or the United States Government.

CAWST Booth Host at Calgary Stampede

Are you keen to share knowledge about water and sanitation with the public? We have opportunities to host a booth at Calgary Stampede and we need your help!

The Position: CAWST Booth Host at Calgary Stampede

Purpose of the Role:

Alongside a CAWST staff member, host a CAWST Poop Toss activity, sharing information on CAWST and on sanitation as part of a makers’ space at Calgary Stampede. This booth is primarily geared towards youth, so if you like engaging a younger audience, this volunteer opportunity is for you!

Duties and Responsibilities:

  • Lead young people visiting the makers’ space to play a round of Poop Toss, share basic knowledge of sanitation
  • Share knowledge on CAWST and CAWST Wavemakers
  • Engage people in discussion on water and sanitation
  • Respond to questions on CAWST
  • Track and log volunteer hours with the CAWST volunteer coordinator

 

Skills and Qualifications:

  • Familiar with CAWST, able to give a brief intro on water and sanitation
  • Friendly personality and keen to work with young people
  • Passion to help CAWST spread the word about water & sanitation
  • Organized and reliable

We will provide orientation and all supplies.

Timing: This is an urgent request for volunteers for half-day afternoon shifts on July 5 – 15.

Department and Supervision: Public Engagement and Donor Initiatives


Application:

If you are already a CAWST volunteer, and you would like to sign up, click here to commit to a shift. If you wish to be a booth host and would like to receive orientation first, please contact the Volunteer Program Coordinator, Tori D’Avella, at volunteers@cawst.org or 403-681-6220.

If you are new to CAWST, please complete the volunteer sign up form.

Additional comments:

All CAWST volunteers are invited to participate in a 4-day training workshop of their choice after completion of 40 volunteer hours. CAWST welcomes volunteers searching for work experience, and is happy to provide letters of reference to interested volunteers.

TRANSFORM – DFID and Unilever

The mission of TRANSFORM is to collaborate with innovators to reduce poverty and make sustainable living commonplace. As part of our mission to drive progress towards accomplishing the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), TRANSFORM invites social innovators and entrepreneurs to submit their applications for market-based solutions that meet the needs of low-income communities. The most recent call for proposals was for innovative models that open up access to high-impact products for underserved consumers in hard-to-reach rural locations (countries of interest were Nigeria, Ethiopia, India, Bangladesh and Myanmar).

Fondation Mérieux

Fondation Mérieux’s grants programme contributes towards financing projects that aim to improve the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of infectious diseases. The projects including as beneficiaries mothers and children will be given priority. Fondation Mérieux’s grants programme is open to the projects of private individuals, organizations or associations, provided that they are long-term and incorporate local health. The project must meet the following criteria:

  • It is run in a developing country by local people;
  • It relates to HIV / AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria, hepatitis, neglected tropical infections and other infectious diseases that represent significant problems to public health;
  • It provides concrete solutions that are suitable and sustainable for the local population and goes beyond education and outreach.

Each selected project will receive a maximum grant of 5,000 euros.

Fondation SUEZ

The vocation of the Fondation SUEZ is to combat exclusion by favouring inclusion and consequently sustainably improving the living conditions and autonomy of persons via access to essential services, social insertion and social harmony. The Fondation SUEZ supports concrete actions in favour of: Access to essential services (water, sanitation and waste) for disadvantaged populations in developing countries; The insertion of vulnerable populations thanks to employment and training in France; Social harmony through education, culture and sport, in France.

Partnerships & Funder Relations

At CAWST, we are passionate about what we do and we are seeking someone to join our team who is driven to increase our base of support. This person collects, analyses and synthesizes information to help build and steward strategic relationships with collaborators and funding partners, and develops and maintains the business systems and processes required to do this. She/he connects the dots, finding opportunities to package CAWST’s services to funders, and may lead the relationship-building directly. This person takes on the challenge of writing concisely to distill and articulate complex concepts and tell CAWST’s story. She/he enjoys working with a team to deliver a finished product, and plays a key role in garnering the funds for CAWST to do its work.

At CAWST, we are passionate about what we do and we are seeking someone to join our team who is driven to increase our base of support. This person collects, analyses and synthesizes information to help build and steward strategic relationships with collaborators and funding partners, and develops and maintains the business systems and processes required to do this. She/he connects the dots, finding opportunities to package CAWST’s services to funders, and may lead the relationship-building directly. This person takes on the challenge of writing concisely to distill and articulate complex concepts and tell CAWST’s story. She/he enjoys working with a team to deliver a finished product, and plays a key role in garnering the funds for CAWST to do its work.

The position: Partnerships & Funder Relations

Reports to: Director, International Partnerships

Type: Full Time, permanent position

Location: The position is based in Calgary, Alberta, Canada

Position start date: As soon as possible

Application Due Date: Review of applications will begin on July 3, 2018 and will continue to be accepted until the position is filled

Compensation: Salary will be discussed in the personal interview so please include salary expectations in your cover letter

 

Position Summary

The Partnerships & Funder Relations position plays a key role in increasing CAWST’s base of support, and is primarily responsible for managing the fund development process and improving the organization’s grant- and contract-based fund development capacity, overall. This ranges from identifying and contacting potential funders and sleuthing relevant information, to coordinating proposal content from various staff, writing proposals, developing detailed project budgets, managing grant administration, providing reports to donors, and improving internal fund development systems and processes. This position also provides communication support services to aid in CAWST’s profile and credibility building initiatives as required. Target audiences include international WASH sector organizations including major development organizations and institutional funders such as foundations, governments, other non-governmental organizations and corporate foundations. This position works with all departments and engages with a variety of people to carry out these responsibilities.
 

Specific Areas of Responsibility

  1. Prospect Research, Cultivation and Stewardship
    • Scan for potential partners and funders, and investigate which prospects are ‘best fit’ for CAWST.
    • Understand and interpret funding guidelines and determine whether CAWST is eligible for and aligned with prospective funders.
    • Examine and assess prospective funders to identify their key messages, investment priorities, business objectives, and areas of shared value.
    • Maintain a system to track and prioritize potential funding opportunities and communicate these to various CAWST staff.
    • Prepare briefing notes by researching and synthesizing background on potential collaborators or funders for meetings, conferences, presentations and events.
    • Develop and steward relationships with prospective and secured collaborators and funders.

 

  1. Proposal Development and Investor Reporting
    • Drive the grant proposal process, including collection and analysis of relevant information from CAWST departments to form the basis of proposals, grant applications, and funder stewardship reports.
    • Understand CAWST’s model, business, and operational plans by actively connecting with staff and CAWST partners.
    • Determine potential ‘angles’ for grant applications and proposals.
    • Draft concept notes, letters of intent and other communication materials used to reach out to and engage potential funders.
    • Develop timelines and coordinate cross-functional teams involved in the proposal development process, ensuring that proposals are on track and that all key players understand their role. Ensure deadlines are met.
    • Communicate CAWST’s key messages to capture and reflect shared value with the prospect’s investment objectives.
    • Support the execution of grant agreements and ensure all agreement requirements are fulfilled.

 

  1. Support Fund and Earned Revenue Development Activities:
    • Provide fund development and communications support to CAWST field staff (Global Services) as they engage in business and fund development activities.
    • Produce activity and financial reports for partners and funders, with support from other departments.
    • Provide support to leadership team, staff, and volunteers with key messages for prospective funders where appropriate.
    • Develop communications tools to support strategies as required.

Other duties as required


Education, Experience, and Skills

  1. Education
    • Bachelor’s or Master’s degree in a related discipline.

2. Experience
• 3-5 years work experience in a related discipline such as grant or contract management, internal/external communications and/or fund development.
• Experience in project management; proven track record of facilitating successful team projects.
• Experience in writing proposals and concept notes.
• Experience developing project budgets, comfortable working with financial information.
• Familiarity with principals and best practices in fund development is preferred.
• International development experience is preferred.
• Experience working in the non-profit sector, especially in the international WASH sector, is considered an asset.
• Experience in writing successful grant proposals for international development projects is considered an asset.

3. Skills
• Passion for CAWST and its cause!
• Communication: Excellent written and verbal English with the ability to develop messaging for different target audiences; able to interpret complex or technical information and translate it into easy-to-understand messages for prospective funders.
• Coordination and project management: Experience coordinating short-term projects in a fast-paced, team environment.
• Attention to detail: Able to manage all components down to the last detail.
• Multi-tasking: Able to prioritize and adjust workload to meet multiple competing deadlines.
• Investigation and Analysis: Enjoys finding/collecting information and results across departments; ability to compile and present information effectively.
• Analytical capability: Assess opportunities and make recommendations.
• Interpersonal: Build rapport to engage and motivate a variety of stakeholders and establish long-term relationships.
• Team player: An accomplished professional who can work well both independently and within a team.
• Comprehension and synthesis: Strong reading comprehension and information synthesis skills.
• Problem solver: Able to think creatively about challenges, resolve issues, and seek support when necessary.
• Computer skills: Proficient in Microsoft Office: Word, Excel, Powerpoint, and in using databases.

 

To Apply

Please send your cover letter, resume, and questionnaire answers (see below) to cawstHR@cawst.org . Reference Partnerships & Funder Relations Role in the email subject line. The position will be open until filled. No phone calls please. Only those candidates able to work in Canada will be reviewed; and only those granted an interview will be contacted.

CAWST values equitable opportunities, sustainable solutions and collaborative and inclusive processes. We recognize and accept differences in cultural, religious and political processes.

 

Questionnaire

Please answer all questions to the best of your ability. Be as specific as possible and try to keep each answer under half a page.

  • What has motivated you to consider working at CAWST in this position?
  • How would you articulate CAWST’s business model and approach to development? What are the opportunities and challenges in articulating this approach to potential donors and funders?
  • Describe your experience and role in obtaining grants from governments and/or large corporations/foundations (preferably in an international development context). What do you see are some key strategies and steps in grant writing/applications that lead to success?
  • What strategies/processes do you use to reach target audiences with the ‘right’ message?

 


Organizational Background

CAWST is a Canadian charity that focuses on the principle that safe water and basic sanitation are fundamentals necessary to empower the world’s poorest people and break the cycle of poverty. CAWST transfers knowledge and skills to organizations and individuals in low- and middle-income countries through education, training, and consulting services. Since 2001, CAWST’s global client network, including governments, community-based charitable organizations, local enterprises, international development agencies, and educational institutions, has helped 15.4 million people get better water or sanitation.

The Financial Post named CAWST one of the Top 23 Charities in Canada in 2017. Read the article.

 

Imágenes del Primer Taller Regional en Latinoamérica de la Red Internacional de TANDAS: “Avanzando la Agenda de Seguridad del Agua”.

Un ensayo fotográfico sobre el primer Taller regional TANDAS, en mayo de 2018, que reunió al sector hídrico en Colombia para avanzar la agenda del agua segura en Latinoamérica.

Hace unas semanas tuvo lugar en la ciudad de Bogotá, Colombia, el primer Taller Regional Latinoamericano de la Red Internacional de Tratamiento de Agua a Nivel Domiciliario (TANDAS) encabezada por OMS/OPS y UNICEF. El Gobierno de Colombia, a través del Ministerio de Vivienda, Ciudad y Territorio y el Ministerio de Salud y Protección Social, fue el anfitrión local y CAWST fuimos los encargados de la facilitación del Taller.

Con este blog fotográfico, queremos compartir con los asistentes, miembros de la Red que no pudieron acompañarnos y demás interesados, algunas imágenes que ilustran este exitoso evento.

Para más detalles acerca de las diferentes sesiones del Taller e información sobre las presentaciones, se invita a los interesados que visiten esta página en nuestra Base de Conocimientos de TANDAS: hwts.info/tandas. También los invitamos a ver la colección completa de fotografías en nuestros álbumes.

Día 1

Inicialmente, el Taller estaba planificado para un máximo de 40 personas. Sin embargo, una vez empezamos a contactar con los países invitados, dado el interés mostrado y la creciente demanda, decidimos aprovechar la ocasión y ampliar el número de países participantes e invitados. Finalmente, pudimos contar con más de 90 personas que participaron durante los 3 días del evento.

La Dra. Gina Watson (Representante de Colombia de la OPS), la Dra. Viviana Limpias, (Representante de Colombia de UNICEF), el Dr. Diego Felipe Polania (director de Desarrollo sectorial del Ministerio de Vivienda) y la Dra. Adriana Estrada (directora de salud ambiental del Ministerio de Salud) fueron los encargados de llevar a cabo la apertura oficial del evento. La Recalcaron la importancia de este tipo de eventos y de establecer relaciones entre representantes gubernamentales de diferentes países para seguir trabajando en avanzar respecto al ODS número 6.

En la imagen, de izquierda a derecha: Dra. Adriana Estrada, Dra. Gina Watson, Dra. Viviana Limpias y el Dr. Diego Felipe Polania.

La primera sesión del evento fue liderada por Fiorella Polo, Alban Nouvellon (ambos de UNICEF) y Henry Hernandez (OPS) cuyo objetivo era presentar la situación global y regional del sector, incluyendo los desafíos a los que se enfrenta Latinoamérica para el cumplimiento de los ODS, como la reducción de brechas y desigualdades entro lo urbano y lo rural, acceso a servicios de poblaciones vulnerables, como poblaciones indígenas o la mejora en los sistemas de información.

Una vez definidos los desafíos a los que se enfrenta la región, llegó el momento de empezar a trabajar en la búsqueda de soluciones y alternativas para solventarlos. Para ello, Fiorella Polo realizó una presentación introductoria acerca de qué se entiende por los marcos de seguridad del agua y Eva Manzano, asesora global de CAWST para la región, relató brevemente cómo el TANDAS encaja dentro de los planes y enfoques de seguridad del agua.

En la tarde, tuvimos la oportunidad de contar con la Dra. Salua Osorio, del INAGUA de Colombia que compartió con los asistentes los resultados preliminares del estudio realizado para la OPS sobre el estado de incorporación de los componentes del Marco de la Seguridad del agua (calidad, PSA, vigilancia), en varios países de la región, incluyendo Argentina, Bolivia, Brasil Colombia, Costa Rica Ecuador, Honduras, Jamaica, México, Perú y Uruguay.

A continuación, Fiorella realizó una presentación, seguida por un trabajo grupal por países, acerca de los pilares o componentes para alcanzar la seguridad del agua. Este ejercicio permitió a los participantes identificar en qué se está trabajando, en qué áreas existen brechas, qué actores son responsables y qué oportunidades existen respecto a componentes como políticas de seguridad de agua, implementación de planes de seguridad de agua y TANDAS y el monitoreo de resultados.

Para finalizar el día, contamos con la experiencia del Gobierno de Colombia y el trabajo que vienen haciendo en el desarrollo de políticas públicas referentes al sector. Inicialmente, Juan Manuel Flechas, del Ministerio de Vivienda, nos explicó los antecedentes que han originado los cambios en las políticas en lo referente al acceso y vigilancia del agua potable en el país. A continuación, Andrea Bernal, también del Ministerio de Vivienda, compartió cómo el Decreto 1898 de 2016 está enfocado a cerrar brechas entre lo urbano y lo rural y reconoce la posibilidad del uso de soluciones alternativas o TANDAS, cuando los sistemas tradicionales de acueducto comunitario no son posibles.

Karen López, del Ministerio de Vivienda, compartió con los asistentes el proceso de verificación y de selección de tecnologías que se viene haciendo en el país con el objeto de apoyar a los implementadores en la toma de decisiones cuando determinen aplicar opciones TANDAS. Del mismo modo, el proceso de verificación permitirá evaluar que las tecnologías cumplen con las características que determinan sus fabricantes.

Por último, Adriana Estrada, del Ministerio de Salud, compartió el trabajo que viene haciéndose desde el sector salud para la inclusión y desarrollo de políticas de vigilancia y control de la calidad del agua, como los mapas de riesgo.

Al final del día, se celebró un cóctel de bienvenida para todos los invitados y otros actores clave del sector del agua en Colombia donde los asistentes pudieron pasar un rato divertido.

 

Día 2

El segundo día comenzó con la lectura de las conclusiones del día 1 por parte de Ivette Gómez, de la oficina de OPS Colombia.

Después, seguimos trabajando y profundizando en el tema de la seguridad del agua. Para ello, contamos con una presentación por parte de Fiorella, que explicó más en detalle acerca de cómo funcionan los planes de seguridad del agua y de cómo se están adaptando para sistemas rurales. A continuación, Justine Rayner, de la Universidad de Tufts, compartió un estudio realizado en varios países sobre la implementación de planes de seguridad del agua y cuáles fueron las lecciones aprendidas.

Por último, Eva Manzano y Laura Macdonald de CAWST realizaron una presentación más detallada de acerca de cómo el TANDAS puede jugar un papel importante en la mejora de la calidad del agua en el punto de consumo, incidiendo positivamente en la mejora de la salud.

La siguiente sesión fue probablemente la más disfrutada por los participantes puesto que pudieron escuchar sobre experiencias de implementación reales de Colombia, la región y globales de cómo diferentes instituciones están trabajando en dar solución a la problemática de la seguridad del agua. Para ello, tuvimos la suerte de contar con un experimentado grupo de ponentes.

María Inestroza, de Pure Water for the World Honduras, nos contó acerca del trabajo que su organización viene haciendo en la implementación de filtros de bioarena y de su uso sostenido en el tiempo gracias a los agentes comunitarios con los que trabajan.

Sabrina Zimmerman, del Banco Mundial, compartió un estudio realizado en la región sobre las desigualdades en el sector del agua y saneamiento.

Jorge Villarreal compartió la experiencia del Departamento de Salud de Atlántico, donde se usaron filtros cerámicos como solución a la rotura de un dique, lo que generó importantes inundaciones.

Joshua Briemberg, de WaterAid Nicaragua, compartió su experiencia trabajando en el desarrollo de mercados para tecnologías TANDAS y el establecimiento de soluciones SMART para promover y adquirir este tipo de tecnologías.

Patricia Segurado, de OPS México nos contó del trabajo que vienen haciendo implementando planes de seguridad del agua en la zona de Chiapas.

Dorian Robinson, de EAWAG Suiza, nos presentó el trabajo que han realizado en Nepal implementando planes de seguridad del agua, tecnologías TANDAS para la mejora de la calidad del agua y haciendo seguimiento construyendo incubadoras portátiles con materiales locales.

Fabiola Berón, del departamento de salud del Valle del Cauca, nos compartió el trabajo que hacen desde su región en la implementación de mapas de riesgo, una herramienta para la identificación de riesgos vinculados a la calidad del agua.

JuliánTéllez, de la Secretaria de Salud de Nariño, compartió la experiencia que se tiene en su departamento con la implementación de diversas tecnologías TANDAS.

Puesto que, por falta de tiempo, los participantes no pudieron visitar todas las estaciones, después realizaron un ejercicio donde pudieron compartir cuáles eran las principales lecciones aprendidas de cada uno de los proyectos presentados.

Como última sesión del Taller, los participantes volvieron a agruparse por países para trabajar en el desarrollo de sus planes de acción, que después compartieron con el grupo en plenaria.

Una vez compartidos los planes de acción de todos los países presentes (México, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, República Dominicana, Panamá, Haití, Ecuador, Perú, Bolivia, Argentina y Colombia), los representantes regionales de la OPS y UNICEF compartieron sus conclusiones sobre el evento y ofrecieron su apoyo a los países para el cumplimiento de sus planes de acción.

Finalmente, representantes de los Ministerios anfitriones realizaron el cierre oficial del Taller, tras no antes agradecer a los participantes, organizadores y financiadores (P&G y UNICEF) por su participación y apoyo para que el Taller se llevase a cabo de forma exitosa.

Y antes de marcharnos, la obligatoria foto de grupo para recordar el evento.

Día 3

Tras el Taller, se organizaron dos visitas de campo para que los participantes pudieran ver de primera mano algunos proyectos que se están implementando en los alrededores de Bogotá. Dado a las limitaciones de tiempo, los participantes tuvieron que escoger entre uno de los proyectos.

El primero de los proyectos fue un programa de filtros de bioarena domiciliarios implementando por la Fundación San Cipriano y apoyado por la Fundación Red Proyecto Gente y la Asocicación Canadiense para el Desarrollo Participativo (CAPD, por sus siglas en inglés). Está situado en Viotá, en el departamento de Cundinamarca.

Pilar Posada, gerente del proyecto guió a los asistentes explicándoles cómo funcionan los filtros, su construcción y el trabajo comunitario educativo que se hace con los usuarios para asegurar un uso sostenido de la tecnología.

También tuvieron la oportunidad de visitar algunos domicilios y conocer las impresiones de los usuarios de los filtros y aprovechar la visita a esta zona cálida para poder disfrutar de la variedad de frutas producidas localmente y de la gastronomía colombiana.

El segundo proyecto estaba ubicado en Tena, Cundinamarca y se trataba de una torre de ultrafiltración implementada en una escuela por la Fundación Agua por la Vida.

Gustavo Samper, director de la organización, junto con el maestro responsable de la escuela explicaron a los participantes cómo se construyó e instaló la torre y sistema de filtración, además de hacer una demostración de los materiales educativos que han desarrollado para educar a los niños en la importancia de consumir agua segura y poner en prácticas otros hábitos importantes, como el lavado de manos.

 


Eva Manzano, BEng, MA, es una asesora global de WASH en el equipo de servicios globales de CAWST. Ha brindado servicios de entrenamiento y consultoría a nuestros clientes en Latinoamérica y el sureste de Asia desde 2011. Eva habla español, inglés e italiano. 

Conozca más:

Para obtener más información sobre los servicios de capacitación y consultoría de CAWST en América Latina, por favor comuníquese con Eva Manzano por correo electrónico a: emanzano@cawst.org

 

Consultant to Facilitate Theory of Change

CAWST (Centre for Affordable Water and Sanitation Technology) is inviting qualified consultants with experience in international development and an in-depth knowledge of program planning and evaluation to facilitate the process of revising our organizational Theory of Change (ToC). The deadline for this proposal is Monday, June 18th, 2018 at 9:00 am.

Location:                                               Calgary, AB

Proposal deadline:                          June 18th , 2018, 9:00 am

Contract award:                              June 22nd, 2018

Final deliverable date:                 October 15th, 2018

 

Invitation

CAWST (Centre for Affordable Water and Sanitation Technology) is inviting qualified consultants with experience in international development and an in-depth knowledge of program planning and evaluation to facilitate the process of revising our organizational Theory of Change (ToC).

Background

CAWST is a Canadian non-profit organization, registered as a charity, focused on the principle that clean water changes lives. Safe water and basic sanitation are fundamentals necessary to empower the world’s poorest people and break the cycle of poverty. CAWST believes that the place to start is to teach people the skills they need to have safe water in their homes. CAWST transfers knowledge and skills to organizations in developing countries through education, training and consulting services. This ever- expanding network of organizations can motivate individual households to take action to meet their own water and sanitation needs. Since 2001, CAWST’s client network has helped 14.9 million people get better water or sanitation.

Our vision is a world where people have the opportunity to succeed because their basic water and sanitation needs have been met.

Our mission is to provide technical training and consulting, and to act as a centre of expertise in water and sanitation for the poor in developing countries.

CAWST values equitable opportunities, sustainable solutions and collaborative and inclusive processes. We recognize and accept differences in cultural, religious and political processes.

 

The Purpose of this Project

CAWST is at a pivotal point in its history. In 2017 we initiated a process of evaluation for improvement. As part of this process, CAWST hired a third party team to review our work and to provide constructive feedback and recommendations. As another part of this process, CAWST is reconsidering some of our assumptions and revisiting our theory of change.

The purpose of the current project is to guide CAWST management and staff in coming to a shared understanding and agreement of our end goals, the logic of our work, and our assumptions as to how our work contributes to the end goals.

The results of the current project, along with the results of the third party evaluation and other elements our evaluation process, will be used to contribute to CAWST strategy and decision-making, guide us in further learning and improvement as an organization, and inform an internal review of CAWST’s measurement system.

 

Scope of Work

The consultant will work with the Project Manager at CAWST to facilitate the development of a ToC.

CAWST will not prescribe the specific methodology used by the consultant in the development of the ToC.

  • The Consultant will propose the best methodology for developing this particular ToC.
  • The Consultant will plan and facilitate focus groups or workshops, if they so choose.
    • The project has a quick turn-around time and is during a time of year in which many staff take holidays. However, all staff (including those who are not Calgary-based) have been requested to be available to the Consultant in Calgary on June 28th, 2018, if needed. Alternatively, most (though not all) staff will be available in the second and third weeks of July.
  • The scale of this ToC is organizational, and is not limited to a particular project or program.
  • The Consultant will both lead the ToC process, as well as develop the ToC product (document). It is understood that to be useful, the ToC must be an ongoing and iterative evolving tool. This ongoing development is beyond the scope of the current contract. The scope of this project is limited to developing the articulation of CAWST’s ToC at this moment in time.
  • In the current case, the ToC process is internally-driven. It is not meant to conform to a particular donor’s requirements or template, but is intended for internal learning, consensus building, and to critically evaluate our assumptions. However, the ToC product (document) will serve additional purposes, including external communication.
  • The ToC document is expected to consist of a diagram illustrating the ToC accompanied by a short report (approximately 10 pages) which includes a narrative description of the theory, a description of the assumptions implicit in the theory, and references to evidence to support the assumptions made. The document should not be a report of the Consultant’s methods or work, but rather be a stand-alone document that can be used to communicate our ToC (e.g. for onboarding staff or board members, for communicating to the public, or for funding proposals).
    • CAWST has an internal graphics design department. Formatting of the figures and document will be done by CAWST. The graphics team can provide feedback and guidance on the development of the diagram, if needed.
  • It is expected that the ToC document will require multiple iterations between CAWST and the Consultant. The Consultant must expect and budget time for these iterations.
  • CAWST is a learning organization. As a part of the process of leading us through the Theory of Change process, it is expected that the Consultant will also transfer some skills and knowledge to CAWST staff who provide planning, design, monitoring, and evaluation support to CAWST clients. CAWST staff have some knowledge of ToC, and CAWST has facilitated ToC development for clients at the program scale.

 

Deliverables

  • Leading CAWST leadership and staff through the process of developing a ToC
  • Finalized ToC document

 

Timelines

  • Contract awarded June 22nd, 2018
  • Draft ToC September 15th, 2018
  • Final Report October 15th, 2018

 

Consultant Roles and Relationship with CAWST staff

The successful Consultant will report directly to the CAWST ToC Project Manager. The Consultant will meet with the Project Manager on predetermined dates and as required to provide updates and progress on this project. The Project Manager will respond to data requests from the Consultant in a timely manner.

Both Management and Staff at CAWST are willing and excited to participate in this project as needed (e.g. in workshops or focus groups). The Research and Learning department will provide support to the Consultant on finding evidence to support assumptions used in the ToC, as time permits.

The document will undergo iterations involving review by the Project Director and other leadership at CAWST. The Project Manager will collect and summarize these comments and provide the Consultant with feedback in “a single voice” and act as a single point of contact.

 

Consultant Qualifications and Considerations

  • Demonstrated experience with consensus-building
  • Demonstrated experience with facilitating Theory of Change processes
  • In-depth knowledge of performance measurement and program evaluation
  • In-depth knowledge of international development and the not-for-profit/charity sector
  • Ability to work collaboratively with CAWST staff
  • Ability to manage project to meet deadlines and deliver high-quality
  • Excellent report-writing and data visualization skills
  • Costs and costing

Preference will be given to Calgary-based consultants for logistical reasons. However, this is not a requirement for proposal consideration.

 

Proposal Requirements (maximum 10 pages, excluding Appendices)

  • Cover letter
  • A description of the proposed approach/methodology for carrying out the assignment
  • Statement of Qualification of the Organization, including a description of three reference projects similar to the proposed work, with a contact list for recommendations
  • Detailed cost proposal in CAD
  • Conflict of interest disclosure
  • References
  • Appendices: CV of primary consultant working on this project

The deadline for this proposal is Monday, June 18th, 2018 at 9:00 am

 

Budget

The budget for this project is to a maximum of CAD $15,000.

 

Application Deadline

Please submit one (1) electronic copy of your complete proposal (including scheduling, hours needed, and project budget) before 9:00 am on June 18th, 2018 to:

Email:                   cawsthr@cawst.org

Subject:               ToC Consultant

Attn:                     Tommy Ngai, PhD
                                 Senior Director, Research and Learning
                                 CAWST

 

Questions/Inquiries

Please contact Candice Young-Rojanschi at crojanschi@cawst.org if you have any questions regarding this RFP.

 

CAWST in the News: CAWST Co-Founder David Manz to Receive Alberta’s Highest Honour

Dr. David Manz, inventor of the biosand filter and co-founder of CAWST, will become a member of the Alberta Order of Excellence this fall.

Dr. David Manz, CAWST co-founder and inventor of the biosand filter.
Dr. David Manz, CAWST co-founder and inventor of the biosand filter.

CALGARY, May 14, 2018 – Through the Alberta Order of Excellence, the Province of Alberta recognizes outstanding citizens, community leaders and innovators for their lifetime of remarkable contributions. This year, in acknowledgement of his outstanding international impact, Dr. David Manz, co-founder of CAWST and inventor of the biosand filter, will become a member of the Alberta Order of Excellence.

In October of 2018, Dr. David Manz, along with seven other Albertans -including k.d. lang and Canada’s first female pilot, Rosella Bjornson- will become members of the Alberta Order of Excellence. Members are inducted into the Order at a special ceremony at Government House in Edmonton. Dr. Manz will be among only 173 members of the Alberta Order of Excellence.

Read the announcement by the Government of Alberta here.

The biosand filter is a household water treatment technology. It was inspired by slow sand filtration, a water treatment process that has been used since the early 1800s. It depends on the same processes that naturally occur in sand at the banks of rivers. Dr. David Manz invented the biosand filter in the early 1990s at the University of Calgary. He co-founded CAWST in 2001 and made his invention freely available for humanitarian means.

CAWST is delighted to congratulate Dr. Manz, one of Canada’s leading humanitarians, on this well-deserved commendation, which is the highest honour a citizen can receive from the province of Alberta. Dr. Manz’s biosand filter invention, as well as his vision and generosity, have been integral to bringing safe, clean water to millions of people around the world.


Learn more about the biosand filter here, and find technical information about the biosand filter here and at manzwaterinfo.ca.

Banner image: CAWST. A little girl in Nepal drinks clean water from a biosand filter.

CAWST in the News: World Water Magazine

Our Director of International Partnerships shares insights with World Water about Canada’s leading role in water security, and CAWST’s global expertise developing women’s knowledge and skills about safe water so they become agents of change in their communities.

CALGARY, May 8, 2018 – Katherine Balpatacki, editor of World Water magazine magazine, recently interviewed CAWST’s Director of International Partnerships, Millie Adams, who shared her insights on capacity development, garnered over more than a decade in the water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) sector. In this article, she explains how women become agents of change and transform their communities when they develop their WASH knowledge and skills.

Here’s an excerpt from the article, quoting Millie Adam:

Developing women’s capacity to fully participate in the provision, management, and safeguarding of water not only works toward closing gender gaps but also leads to better results for WASH programs. (…) Capacity-building is explicitly identified [in the SDG framework] as one of the primary means of implementation, particularly for water and sanitation.

Read the full article here.

 

World Water magazine is a resource for more than 35,000 professionals who follow Water Canada in print and online. It is published by The Water Environment Federation (WEF), a not-for-profit technical and educational organization with 75 affiliated Member Associations that represent water quality professionals around the world.

We’re looking forward to participating in the WEF’s upcoming Canadian Water Summit from June 20 to 22. See you in Vancouver!


CAWST is a Canadian-based non-profit and engineering firm that distills and disseminates knowledge on non-networked water, sanitation and hygiene solutions in low- to middle-income countries. Since 2001, we have been walking beside our global network of clients and partners, helping them to develop their capacity so they can ultimately operate independently without our assistance.

Banner image: CAWST. Empowering women to become agents of change through capacity development in water,sanitation and hygiene. Nepal, 2017.

Latin American WASH Sector gathers in Colombia to share knowledge, learn and advance the agenda of safe water in the region

The WHO/UNICEF International Network on Household Water Treatment and Safe Storage (HWTS) is hosting the first Latin America Regional Workshop: “Advancing the Water Safety Agenda” in Bogota, Colombia, May 7-9, 2018.

Photo: CAWST

HWTS Network Latin America Regional Workshop in Bogota, Colombia

 

CALGARY, April 27, 2018 — CAWST is delighted to announce its participation in the first Latin America Regional Workshop: “Advancing the Water Safety Agenda” in Bogota, Colombia, May 7th to 9th, 2018. This trailblazing event will be hosted by the WHO/UNICEF International Network on Household Water Treatment and Safe Storage (HWTS).

The Government of Colombia, the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) / World Health Organization (WHO) and UNICEF, with the support of CAWST and other members of the network, will lead a participatory 3-day workshop to engage inter-sectoral stakeholders and unify efforts to make progress toward Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 6.1, focusing on improved service delivery to achieve water safety from catchment to point-of-use.

In Latin America, access to improved water sources is high, but ensuring water safety remains a challenge, especially in remote, rural areas and areas of peri-urban growth. To address the challenge of safe water provision in such areas, the government of Colombia established several regulations in 2016 acknowledging alternative solutions for settings when centrally treated, piped water is not feasible. These regulations authorize municipalities and service providers to use a combination of service delivery approaches, including HWTS, to address water safety and reach unserved populations. As such, The WHO/UNICEF International Network on HWTS is hosting a Latin America Regional Workshop to learn from Colombia’s experience, share with and learn from other partners, and jointly advance the water safety agenda in the region.

General statistics show high levels of water coverage in many areas across Latin America”, explains Eva Manzano, Global WASH Advisor at CAWST, who will be facilitating this workshop. “However, in many cases, water quality is still a key challenge. Household water treatment and safe storage can play a key role in addressing this gap. Treating water in the home protects people from waterborne disease immediately, is affordable to reach the large number of people currently unserved, improves households’ resilience, and paves the way for better health, hygiene, and sanitation.

Interested in collaborating? Join us!

This event targets government representatives from the region, and network members are also welcome to participate. The event will be held in Spanish. If you are interested in attending and able to cover your own expenses to do so, please contact Eva Manzano (Global WASH Advisor, CAWST) at emanzano@cawst.org by May 1st. You can find event details at hwts.info/tandas.

Learn more

· How Colombia is innovating for safe water access and basic sanitation in dispersed populations, through its new legislation.

· The personal impact of capacity development in a rural community in Colombia.

· The business case for capacity development.

· Sustainable Development Goal 6.

· “2.1 billion people lack access to safe, readily available water at home, and 4.5 billion people lack access to safely managed sanitation”. WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme, 2017.


Media Inquiries

Eva Manzano, BEng, MA
Global WASH Advisor
CAWST (Centre for Affordable Water and Sanitation Technology)
  emanzano@cawst.org
  (Canadá): 1.403.243.3285 ext. 244
  (España): 34.717.701637


About CAWST

CAWST is a centre of expertise focused on providing training, consulting and educational resources on non-centralized water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) solutions. CAWST tackles the global need for safe water and sanitation building knowledge and skills at the local level. As an expert in Household Water Treatment and Safe Storage (HWTS), CAWST has extensive and in-depth knowledge of technologies, approaches, program implementation, monitoring and evaluation.

Find the CAWST logo here.

 

 

 

 

Primer taller regional reúne al sector hídrico en Colombia para avanzar la agenda del agua segura en Latinoamérica

La Red Internacional de la OMS/UNICEF sobre Tratamiento de Agua a Nivel Domiciliario y su Almacenamiento Seguro (TANDAS) organiza el primer Taller Regional en Latinoamérica: “Avanzando hacia la agenda de seguridad del agua” en Bogotá, Colombia, del 7 al 9 de mayo, 2018.

Photo: CAWST

Red Internacional de la OMS/UNICEF sobre Tratamiento de Agua a Nivel Domiciliario y su Almacenamiento Seguro (TANDAS)
Primer Taller Regional en Latinoamérica

CALGARY, 27 de abril de 2018 – CAWST se complace en anunciar su participación en el primer Taller Regional de América Latina: “Avanzando hacia la agenda de seguridad del agua” en Bogotá, Colombia, del 7 al 9 de mayo de 2018. Este evento será organizado por la Red Internacional de la OMS/UNICEF sobre Tratamiento de Agua a Nivel Domiciliario y su Almacenamiento Seguro (TANDAS).

El Gobierno de Colombia, la Organización Panamericana de la Salud (OPS) / Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) y UNICEF, con el apoyo de CAWST y otros miembros de la red, conducirán un taller participativo de 3 días para involucrar a las partes interesadas intersectoriales y unificar los esfuerzos para avanzar hacia el Objetivo de Desarrollo Sostenible (ODS) 6.1, centrándose en una mejor prestación de servicios para lograr la seguridad del agua desde la captación hasta el punto de uso.

En Latinoamérica, el acceso a fuentes de agua es alto, pero asegurar la calidad del agua sigue siendo un desafío, especialmente en zonas rurales, rurales dispersas y periurbanas en crecimiento. Para enfrentar el reto de la provisión de agua segura en estas áreas, el gobierno de Colombia estableció nueva legislación que reconoce la posibilidad de ampliar el acceso a agua con calidad, utilizando soluciones alternativas cuando no se cuenta con sistemas de tratamiento o de agua entubada, para contextos rurales o periurbanos. Estas reglamentaciones permiten a los municipios y proveedores de soluciones alternativas, implementar una combinación de enfoques internacionales, incluyendo el TANDAS, para orientar a individuos, familias y comunidades en el tema de agua segura. Como tal, la Red Internacional de la OMS/UNICEF sobre TANDAS está organizando un Taller Regional en Latinoamérica para aprender de la experiencia de Colombia, conocer y compartir experiencias y, de manera conjunta, avanzar la agenda del agua segura en la región.

En muchas zonas de América Latina, las estadísticas generales muestran altos niveles de cobertura de agua”, explica Eva Manzano, asesora global de WASH en CAWST, quien facilitará este taller. “Sin embargo, en muchos casos, la calidad del agua sigue siendo un desafío clave. El tratamiento del agua en el hogar y su almacenamiento seguro pueden desempeñar un papel clave para abordar esta brecha. El tratamiento del agua en el hogar protege a las personas de enfermedades transmitidas por el agua de manera inmediata, es asequible para llegar a la gran cantidad de personas actualmente sin servicio, mejora la resiliencia de los hogares y allana el camino para una mejor salud, higiene y saneamiento.

¿Interesado en colaborar? ¡Únase a nosotros!

Este evento está dirigido a representantes gubernamentales de la región, y los miembros de la red también son bienvenidos. El evento se llevará a cabo en español. Si está interesado en asistir y puede cubrir sus propios gastos para hacerlo, por favor comuníquese con la Ing. Eva Manzano (Asesora Global de WASH, CAWST) por correo electrónico a emanzano@cawst.org antes del 1 de mayo. Puede encontrar los detalles del evento en hwts.info/tandas.

 

Mayor información

· Colombia introduce nueva legislación para mejorar el acceso a agua segura en poblaciones dispersas.

· El impacto personal del desarrollo de capacidades en una comunidad rural de Colombia.

· The business case for capacity development.

· El Objetivo de Desarrollo Sostenible (ODS) 6.

· “3 de cada 10 personas, o 2100 millones de personas, carecen de acceso a agua potable y disponible en el hogar, y 6 de cada 10, o 4500 millones, carecen de un saneamiento seguro.” Programa de Monitoreo Conjunto (JMP) de la OMS y UNICEF, 2017.


Contacto

Ing. Eva Manzano
Asesora Global de WASH
CAWST (Centre for Affordable Water and Sanitation Technology)
  emanzano@cawst.org
  (Canadá): 1.403.243.3285 ext. 244
  (España): 34.717.701637


Acerca de CAWST

CAWST es un centro de experticia centrado en proveer capacitación, consultoría y materiales educativos sobre soluciones de agua y saneamiento no-centralizadas. CAWST aborda la necesidad global de agua segura y saneamiento construyendo conocimiento y habilidades a nivel local. Como experto en TANDAS, CAWST tiene un conocimiento extenso y profundo sobre tecnologías, enfoques, implementación de proyectos, monitoreo y evaluación.

Puede encontrar el logotipo de CAWST aquí.

 

 

Hygiene Research in Iraq

Working in partnership, ACF, LSHTM, and CAWST are bringing together their experience and networks to develop deep understandings of the determinants of hand hygiene in emergency settings so as to contribute to the development of rapid and effective intervention tools.

CAWST has been working with Action Contre Faim (ACF) and The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (LSHTM) to better understand handwashing practices among internally displaced people. Working together on this project, our partnership brings together our experience and networks in academic health research, humanitarian operational experience in WASH and Mental Health, and development of educational material. The general objective of the research is to develop deep understandings of the determinants of hand hygiene in emergency settings, thus contributing to the development of rapid and effective intervention tools; the ultimate goal of the research will be to equip emergency responders with the knowledge and tools to intervene rapidly and effectively on hygiene behaviour. Phase 1 of this project explores the determinants of hygiene behaviour in these contexts. To fulfill the objectives of this phase, exploratory field work was carried out in Iraq and the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Phase 2 will involve developing a software-based decision-making tool to aid in the design of rapid, evidence-based programs.
The full findings, including practitioner resources, will be available in 2018.

In her earlier blog post, Sian White, the project’s lead researcher, shared four research methods she has been using and what these had revealed so far in her exploratory fieldwork in Iraq. In this update, Sian discusses the work done in Iraq and DRC, including the research objectives and methods used and some of the key findings from the qualitative research.

Study sites: Iraq and DRC


Since 2014, four million Iraqis are estimated to have been displaced due to conflict. The study sites for this research were the Dohuk and Ninewa Governorates (boundaries between these areas were disputed at the time as shown on the map opposite). The research took place during the final period of the battle for Mosul. The interviews with humanitarian actors took place in Erbil and Dohuk cities as these are the primary locations where organisations and coordinating bodies were based at the time.

 


Cholera has been endemic in DRC since 1994. In the eastern provinces of North and South Kivu, cases are registered throughout the year with peaks at the end of the dry season. However, in 2017 DRC experienced its worst cholera outbreak in decades with almost 50,000 suspected cases and over 900 deaths registered between January and December. Although the outbreak spread across 21 of the nation’s 26 provinces, the Kivus were the worst affected. Minova, where the research took place, sits alongside Lake Kivu, a renowned reservoir for vibro cholera. There are also two informal IDP camps in Minova and many other IDPs living in the community.

Objectives of the work in Iraq and DRC

1. Describe the determinants of handwashing behaviour:
• during and after mass displacement due to an armed conflict (Iraq).
• during a cholera outbreak in a context which also experiences ongoing conflict and population displacement (DRC).
2. Understand how humanitarian actors currently design hygiene programs and identify the constraints within which they have to operate.
3. Pilot and refine a set of rapid and simple formative research methods that could be replicated by humanitarian practitioners with limited experience and guidance.

 

Qualitative research

Methods

The research was designed based on the Behaviour Centred Design framework (Aunger and Curtis, 2016). This framework outlines a set of behavioural determinants. For each of these a handwashing specific definition of the determinant was developed as an output of the literature review. By reviewing handwashing literature and looking more broadly a method was then selected to explore each determinant in the framework.

Method Reflections – Iraq

Most of the methods were well accepted and were found to be appropriate to this context. Two methods were not used from the outset. The first was observation at communal waterpoints as these did not exist in these settings. The second was the behaviour trails method. This deemed in appropriate in the first camp in particular as people could not control their environments or circumstances and this is a highly participatory method that requires participants to actively make changes that would enable handwashing. The other method that was used with a small number of participants but then stopped was the social network mapping. This was a highly sensitive method as it reminded people of friendships and family they had lost/been separated from and the researchers felt that it had the potential to cause discomfort. Some of the methods that worked particularly well were observation, the 100 people activity, soap attribute ranking, the ideal handwashing facility activity and the personal histories activity. The latter was created for this research but proved useful for understanding the broader context as well as how hygiene practices changed over time.

Method reflections – DRC

Most of the methods were well accepted and were found to be appropriate to this context. Some of the methods that worked particularly well were the behaviour trials, the soap attribute ranking, the motive characters, the water prioritisation and the personal histories method. Observation was particularly challenging in this context because shelters were very small and dark, thus making it hard for the research assistants to position themselves in a discrete location. The lead researcher also had to cease participating in the observation (leaving it to the local staff) as the presence of a foreigner in the community tended to cause a lot of disruption and cause crowds to gather. Some of the methods took longer to do in this context because lower levels of literacy necessitating longer explanations.

 

Key preliminary findings from the qualitative research – Iraq

The situation in the short-term camp

Contrary to the research hypothesis, handwashing appeared to increase among those displaced to camps. This was due to a confluence of factors. The first factor was that in both camps there was no restriction on water use, which is relatively unusual compared to other camps globally. Secondly, we conducted the study at the height of summer when the temperatures are extremely hot and the environment very dusty, thus people got sweaty and unclean quickly. Thirdly people had relatively few possessions and as such  clothes, dishes and household spaces needed to be cleaned regularly. Fourthly, people reported a heightened sense of disease risk since coming to the camp and diarrhoea was cited as a leading concern. Lastly, there was very little for people to do in the camps. People tended to avoid socializing (particularly in the immediate period following displacement) and endeavoured to re-establish their routines and create more comfortable and orderly spaces within their households (often re-designing their shelters to make them more like home). In the absence of other tasks, cleaning behaviours became a predominant part of daily life. These circumstances created an environment where people frequently came into contact with water and where hygiene was highly valued. However, these circumstances may have created a false sense of cleanliness. Hands were often not washed with soap nor was handwashing practiced at all critical times. In particular we did not observe handwashing prior to food preparation or eating. In the short-term camp where WASH facilities were shared, handwashing with soap was less common as soap was normally stored inside people’s tents rather than near the bathroom (this was because people worried about it being stolen or used carelessly).

The situation in the long-term camp

Perceived risk is normally understood to diminish with time as people become accustomed to their new situation.  Surprisingly this was not found to be the case in the long-term displacement camp, with people still feeling at increased risk of diarrhoea. The circumstances described above (availability of water, the heat, the lack of belongings, and lots of time) were present in this camp too and this appears to have led to the creation of a new hygiene norm. In addition, several years of hygiene kit distributions have created a demand for soap even though hygiene products are no longer distributed. People reported spending a large portion of their income on hygiene products, it was stockpiled, available in all homes, and used excessively in day-to-day activities. In this setting the perceived quality of the water (it was of drinkable quality but had lots of minerals) was a barrier to regular handwashing as people felt it left a salty residue and led to their hands being dry and irritated.

The situation in the villages

In the villages hygiene behaviour was different from camps and varied depending on whether individuals were returnees or were IDPs. For returnees being back home was accompanied with feeling safe and protected. As a consequence, people were more likely to think that diarrhoea was not a risk to their families, that it was uncommon in their villages and not something to be scared of. However, people were returning to homes and communities that were different to those they left. For example, buildings had been destroyed and possessions looted; the water supply had been cut and so people had shifted from piped water to collecting a limited amount of water in jerry cans; people were unemployed; and markets (including those that sold soap) had ceased operation. Handwashing was uncommon in these settings and many families did not have soap in their households. Despite this there was a desire among returnees to ‘build back more beautiful’ and to maintain their own appearance despite their circumstances. In communities, people tended to have dedicated places for handwashing. In most cases these were beautifully appointed ceramic basins, with piped water, a soap dish and a mirror. The basins were prominently located near the front of the house for guests to use. However almost all basins were damaged or non-functional due to the lack of water supply, making it harder and less appealing to wash hands. IDPs residing among returnee communities explained that hygiene was of utmost importance to their identity. They felt that being an IDP meant others were likely to label them as unclean and poor. They explained that they had made paid attention to the hygiene norms of others in the community and had actively taught their children that they must be more hygienic than the community members so as to create the right impression.

Implications for Practitioners

• Knowledge: Almost everyone understood the association between handwashing and disease transmission. This means that we can stop educating people about disease transmission as part of programs.
• Behavioural settings: In this context people are used to beautiful facilities for handwashing. Camps and rebuilding efforts in villages, should aim to re-create and enhance this. This should involve creating dedicated spaces for handwashing that are pleasant places to be. Facilities should include ‘behavioural nudges’, mirrors and soap dishes. They should be built outside the toilet where it can be seen but where it is still convenient.
• Products: Support the re-establishment of markets so that people in villages can access soap more readily. In camps increase the range of soaps available and allow people to choose the soap they prefer as this will make the product more desirable.
• Norms: In camp settings it is clear that positive handwashing norms exist but that people don’t often observe the behaviour of others. Programs should aim to heighten awareness about positive norms. A simple way of doing this, for example, may be to put up posters that say “Did you know this camp has the highest rates of handwashing of any camp in Kurdistan – Keep it up!”.
• Motives: disgust appears to be naturally heightened in camp settings so improving handwashing in these contexts should rely on linking comfort and attract more closely to handwashing, motives which become increasingly of value when a person has lost so much. To overcome the hygiene complacency observed in villages, disgust should be heightened in order to make people more aware that their home has changed and therefore their behaviour needs to change too.
• Social environment: People do not naturally socialise very much upon arriving at camps, nor do they always receive the necessary psychological support that they require following trauma. Since this research found psychosocial wellbeing to be closely linked to hygiene, hygiene programs could contribute to re-building social support networks and creating spaces where people can talk and interact. Cross-sectional programming between mental health and the WASH sector should be encouraged.
• Delivery channels: Since women are often responsible for key hygiene related tasks but often do not leave the house, all hygiene programs should involve at least some house-to-house component to ensure women feel comfortable and can participate.

Barrier Analysis – Iraq

The qualitative work was complemented with a Barrier Analysis (BA) Survey. Some general reflections on this method:
• This method works very well to complement qualitative research and was also able to confirm some of the qualitative insights (eg. Risk perception).
• This method was good at understanding rational reasons why people do or don’t do the target behaviour but less able to explore behavioural influences that occur at a semi-subconscious level. This is another reason to combine this method with qualitative approaches.
•  Screening is based on self-reported and proxy measures of behaviour NOT actual behaviour. In a camp setting people are familiar with hygiene promotion and know the ‘correct’ thing to say.
• The classifications of ‘Doer’ and ‘Non-doer’ are useful because they help to make behaviour simple. But as practitioners we have to remember that these classifications are not reflective of the real-world situation. In reality we all sometimes remember to wash hands and sometimes forget and thus the lines between the categories are more blurry.

Key preliminary findings from the qualitative research – DRC

Handwashing behaviour

Observations indicated that handwashing with soap and hand rising (with water alone) were rare in these locations. Handwashing with soap was only observed once among the 17 observation households. Handwashing rarely took place after using the toilet but hand rinsing was sometimes practiced before eating, and this was actively taught to children as part of good mannerly behaviour. Hands rinsing was most often motivated by disgust, that is to say that hands were washed when they were visibly dirty (e.g. after returning from the field). Despite the low prevalence of handwashing behaviour people were well aware of the benefits of handwashing and 98% of participants could explain the association between handwashing and disease transmission.

One of the main factors that prevented convenient handwashing was the absence of handwashing facilities. None of the urban houses we visited had a dedicated place for handwashing. In camps facilities had been built several years ago but were now damaged and non-functional. In rural areas some houses had built tippy-taps (as part of a prior Community-led Total Sanitation campaign) but none were observed to be used or working. In focus groups people reported that they disliked the design of the tippy-taps and saw them as a symbol of poverty that they were not willing to adopt. Both water and soap were considered valuable and therefore people were often reluctant to store them near the toilets or kitchens which were often unclean, shared spaces. During behaviour trials participants identified that one of the barriers to handwashing was that there was nothing to cue behaviour at the key times and this prompted several people to design and build handwashing facilities. They were able to do so in a short period of time, using local materials and at no cost.

Handwashing is not considered to be a worthwhile use of soap. Partly this is because NGOs have promoted the use of ash as a free alternative for handwashing. Handwashing with ash was practiced by some people, but was described as unpleasant and undesirable, resulting in it being used infrequently. Where soap is available in households it is normally laundry powder or laundry bar soap. Although soap is rarely distributed by NGOs, in cases where it is, it is the laundry bar soap that is normally procured. However, participants explained that they would never use this for handwashing as it smells unpleasant and makes their hands dry. In camps and among host community members people live very communally. It is common for people to share containers and tools, share food and give water to a neighbour if they are running low. It was considered acceptable to ask a neighbour for soap to do laundry or for bathing but the idea of asking for soap for handwashing was considered humorous and people reported that you would be seen as trying to be above others if you did so.

In this setting it was common for daily household earnings to be less than $US 2. Daily routines were entirely oriented around earning enough to buy food for that day. With these limited resources adults would normally only eat once a day. People explained that their constant hunger constrained their capacity to remember to be hygienic (for example this was the main reason people said they often forget to wash hands prior to food preparation or eating). In order to earn sufficient money, adults spend most of their day in the fields, leaving young children at home unaccompanied. Parents acknowledged that they were worried about their children’s hygiene during these hours, but felt powerless to change this situation. This suggests that in this context the nurture motive may be less appropriate to utilise to promote handwashing. Although handwashing was a socially desirable behaviour, observed transgressions in handwashing practice were rarely socially sanctioned. This was largely because people normally adopted a forgiving attitude towards such transgressions, assuming that others, like them, must be dealing with poverty, hunger and psychological trauma (due to conflict and displacement). Affiliation (the desire to belong in a social group and therefore conform to group behaviours) did not emerge as a strong motivator of handwashing in this context. During the motives activity people explained that many of their close friends have poor hygiene but this just due to their circumstances rather than their character. In contrast people were judgmental of the handwashing behaviour of their spouse and explained that they could not be attracted to someone if they did not have clean hands. People did think that at a community-level handwashing increased in response to the cholera outbreak. People thought that for the majority of people this would only cause a short-term change in behaviour, but for others it could result in improved habits.

Attitudes and experiences of cholera

All participants were well informed about cholera and able to explain all key transmission routes. In focus group discussions people ranked cholera as the health issue that they were most concerned about and thought that it was the health issue which most commonly affected members of their community. In contrast diarrhoea was considered a mild health issue that did not have severe consequences and was only due to ‘disagreeable food’. Despite this reported ‘fear’ of cholera people simultaneously felt that cholera was just like any other disease and their familiarity with it over the years had allowed them to develop the belief that it could easily be treated (for free) and therefore rarely resulted in death. Consistent with this, many research participants told us that ‘black people don’t die of germs’. This saying was used to rationalise the fact that although most people viewed their environment as dirty and contaminated, and often lacked the means to be hygienic, it was rarely perceived to have adverse consequences. These factors have contributed to cholera no longer being seen as an outbreak disease but rather as a chronic health problem that the population had to manage and tolerate.

Although participants knew that good hygiene practices could reduce the likelihood of getting cholera most people who had contracted cholera felt that in their case it must have been due to bad luck, with the high prevalence of cases causing hygienic people like themselves to fall ill. Since most people knew someone who had had cholera recently there was minimal stigma towards the disease. People perceived it as normal for young children and older people to get cholera – in both cases people explained that this was because it is hard to control their behaviour. However, if healthy adults contracted cholera this was still met with confusion and stigma. Adult cholera cases reported that friends tended not to visit them when they heard they had got cholera. Immediate family and neighbours did not tend to ‘stay away’ nor change their opinion of the person with cholera. These individuals often played an important role in helping the cholera patient to recover. In addition to proximity, this may explain why intra-household transmission and transmission between neighbouring households was common in this region (and is well documented in the literature). Another contributing factor in this region is that cholera case management and follow-up remains suboptimal. On discharge patients are given 7 water treatment tablets and a small bar of laundry soap (although often they do not receive either). Providing such a small amount of hygiene provisions has the effect of distorting people’s risk perception, facilitating beliefs that it is not necessary to sustain good hygiene behaviours in the long term. This is of particular concern given that cholera cases may continue shedding for up to 50 days post discharge.

Although people had strong attitudes towards cholera as a disease, people on average had a poor understanding of the socio-economic impact that it could have on a household. Cholera cases described that they often felt weak and were unable to fulfil their normal tasks for up to a month after being discharged. In a context like DRC where people are generally living in extreme poverty and need to work in order to put food on the table each day, this has a substantial impact on the family economy. With less available of money, people said that they were normally unable to afford products like soap in the weeks after being discharged. Additionally, having a cholera case in the household often meant that the family could not collect as much water as normal (either because the women of the household were personally affected or because they were involved in caring for male household members who were sick). Both of these factors obviously place other family members at higher risk of contracting cholera.

Lastly people tended to associate cholera with people who they viewed to be categorically different from themselves. In focus group discussions people described a typical cholera cases as someone who is already sickly, has little respect for themselves or others, is arrogant and is poor and uneducated. Host community members thought cholera more commonly affected IDPs, while IDPs felt that they often had to behave more hygienically in order to rise above their circumstances and were therefore less likely to get cholera than the host community.

Implications for practitioners – DRC

• Knowledge: Almost everyone understood the association between handwashing and disease transmission. This means that we can stop educating people about disease transmission as part of programs.
• Behavioural settings: Creating dedicated places for handwashing would help to reposition handwashing as a norm and act as a cue or reminder to prompt behaviour. Prior programs that have attempted to do this have installed facilities that are not considered pleasant to use and which break easily. New initiatives should incentivise family units or compounds to design and build their own facilities that are appealing and affordable. Doing these initiatives at the compound level could work well in this context since neighbours are already reliant on each other for many aspects of their daily lives. This would enable families to pool their resources so that they are able to purchase soap for handwashing. A collective commitment to handwashing among the compound members might make handwashing more social judged and therefore adhered to. This may also enable soap and water to be kept at the handwashing facilities.
• Products: There is a need to change perceptions towards soap. This may require organisations to reduce the extent to which they promote handwashing with ash. It will also require hygiene promotion activities that highlight the non-health benefits of soap, such as how nice hands smell afterwards or how soft they feel. This should be done through experiential learning (e.g. people trying different soap products and seeing how they smell). There may also be opportunities to work with women’s groups to rebrand/decorate locally produced soaps to make them more appealing.
• Supporting cholera cases upon discharge: Stronger efforts should be made to map where cholera cases reside and to support patients upon discharge. This will be critical for reducing transmission within the household and among neighbouring households. Tailored hygiene promotion and hygiene kits should be provided to families with a cholera case and their neighbours. Ideally cholera cases should receive hygiene provisions (e.g soap) sufficient for the first three months after their discharge (the period when they are still able to transmit the disease). The provision of hygiene products for this period should be staged. With some given immediately and further provisions given once the family has built a handwashing facility, for example.
 Shifting community perceptions towards cholera: Cholera is understood as a disease but its increasing familiarity is breeding complacency. Rather than continuing to tell people about the health risks of cholera it may be more effective to humanise the disease and emphasise other types of impacts that people are currently unaware of – such as the impact of cholera on household economies and on a person’s social relationships. It is important that this be done in a manner which is not just fearmongering but rather helps people to see a now familiar disease in a new light. One way of doing it would be to film short videos with people who have had cholera and get them to describe their personal experiences. These could then be taken house to house when doing hygiene promotion and shown on tablets/mobile devices.
• Motives: Disgust is currently the primary motivator of handwashing but could still be heightened by implementing activities like Glow Germs (www.glogerm.com). Motives that have been previously used to promote handwashing behaviour such as nurture and affiliation are likely to be less effective in this context than the motives of comfort and attract. One way that this could be done is by creating a picture or video-based narrative that links handwashing with romance and beauty or positions it as a way of feeling momentarily more comfortable despite difficult circumstances.
• Keeping a broad view: People in this context are under a lot of psychological and economic strain. Those delivering hygiene programs need to be mindful of the much bigger issues that people are facing and ideally connect people with other development initiatives which try to address these issues.

Barrier Analysis – DRC

The qualitative work was complemented with a Barrier Analysis (BA) Survey. Some general reflections on this method – DRC:
• This method works very well when complemented with qualitative research. It was able to confirm some of the qualitative insights (eg. hunger and stress making people less able to practice handwashing). The insights from the Barrier Analysis can be interpreted more soundly by setting them against the broader qualitative dataset.
• When doing the Barrier Analysis in this setting we had tried to sample every fifth house (although random selection is not a requirement of BA) which has a child under the age of 5.
• Although this was done in order to get a diverse sample and create a fair way of selecting participants from among a broader population, it was actually perceived as unfair by many people in the camps and communities. In humanitarian response it is common for everyone to receive interventions equally so those houses that did not participate perceived that they may be missing out on something (even if this was not the case).
• To be done effectively Barrier Analysis requires close supervision and diligent data collectors. Staff need to treat every interview with equal care and precision. The repetitiveness of the process can easily lead to data collectors cutting corners by rushing through the interview without sufficient probing or reflection or changing the way questions are asked.
• In DRC and in the previous survey we conducted in Iraq our translators struggled to come up with a local term for ‘approve’ and ‘disapprove’ as it is used in the social norms questions. The terms chosen ended up being more serious in nature and more about bearing witness to the behaviour.
• Often Barrier Analyses generate results that are inconsistent (e.g. responses to different questions contradict each other directly) or that don’t really make sense behaviourally (e.g. we would expect that non-doers were more aware of cultural taboos discouraging handwashing and less aware of community rules that encourage hygiene). The tendency is to disregard such results but this surely calls into question the validity of the other results.
• The Barrier Analysis covers a lot of determinants in a short period of time through quite focused questions. However, such a format may not provide an appropriate setting for participants to actually answer the questions being asked. For example, if a stranger (the data collector) asks a set of rapid questions and then asks about cultural taboos, participants may be likely give a socially desirable response since answering honestly may not align with the format.
• The analysis process for BA surveys is highly subjective but this is rarely acknowledged within the method. As with any analysis of qualitative data, the number of categories and types of categories created will shape the results of the data substantially.

Dissemination Meetings

Iraq

At the end of the field visit the research team held a dissemination meeting to share the results with key humanitarian actors and the government. The meeting was attended by 71 participants from 31 different NGOs or government departments. The meeting consisted of an introduction to behaviour change and behavioural determinants; a ‘methods marketplace’ where people had the change to wander around the room and interact with posters, tools and photos from each method; a presentation on the qualitative results, a presentation on the Barrier Analysis results; and closing remarks from the Deputy Governor of Dohuk. At the beginning of the session participants were asked to write down on a piece of paper the main reasons people in camps in communities do not always wash their hands and suggest a solution. The most common problems cited were a lack of soap, water and appropriate WASH facilities; a lack of bio-medical knowledge; a belief that handwashing was not a part of their prior culture or habits; and that as part of the psychological impact of displacement, people show signs of depression that translates into them being too bored, forgetful, and lazy to wash their hands.  The predominant solutions related to increased education about handwashing and the provision of hygiene kits.

DRC

Key stakeholders were invited to dissemination meetings in Goma and in Kinshasa in March/April 2018. The Goma dissemination workshop was attended by 45 people from 26 different international NGOs, local NGOs, government agencies and UN agencies.  The entire workshop was presented by the three Research Assistants Anna Mutula Christine, François Kawalina Mazimwe and Modeste Munganga Buroko. The workshop in Kinshasa was attended by 43 people from 26 different International NGOs, local NGOs, UN agencies, government agencies and donor agencies. It followed the same format as the one in Goma and was also lead by the three Research Assistants.

 


About this project

“This project is made possible by the generous support of the American people through the United States Agency for International Development (USAID). The contents are the responsibility of Action Contre La Faim (ACF), The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (LSHTM), and CAWST (Centre for Affordable Water and Sanitation Technology) and do not necessarily reflect the views of USAID or the United States Government.

Wavemakers Social Media Content Supporter

Are you a social media enthusiast who is interested in youth, education and the environment? Share your creativity and support the Wavemakers program by researching, developing and sharing content that is relevant to our audiences.

The Position: Wavemakers Social Media Content Supporter 

Purpose of the Role:

Help to research, curate and plan content for Wavemakers social media (Instagram, Twitter & Facebook) on key topic areas.

Duties and Responsibilities:

  • Research and share content
  • Prepare posts for social media
  • Attend monthly or bi-monthly social media planning meeting with staff to prepare content

 

Skills and Qualifications:

  • Familiar with CAWST, especially youth Wavemakers
  • Experience with social media, especially creating content
  • Passionate about topic areas like environmental education, water, community development, youth leadership, STEM learning

 

Estimated time commitment: 1 hour per week

Department and Supervision: Public Engagement and Donor Initiatives


Application:

If you are already a CAWST volunteer, please contact the Volunteer Program Coordinator, Tori D’Avella, at volunteers@cawst.org or 403-243-3285 ext 259 to express your interest in this position.

If you are new to CAWST, please complete the volunteer sign up form.

 

Additional comments:

All CAWST volunteers are invited to participate in a 4-day training workshop of their choice after completion of 40 volunteer hours. CAWST welcomes volunteers searching for work experience, and is happy to provide letters of reference to interested volunteers.

NextWorldNow Community Investments

NextWorldNow provides resources for projects defined by local leaders to improve the lives and well-being of the people in the community. NextWorldNow will offer at least one ten thousand dollar ($10,000) grant to a selected project. The fund invests are interested in many types of community programs: Civic Participation; Education; Effective Development; Environmental Mediation – Water, Sanitation, Deforestation; Health Care Access and Treatment; Human Rights; Peace and Human Security; Shelter; Smallholder Productivity and Food Security; Sustainable Markets/Livelihood.

Summer Festival Crew Member (multiple positions available with various shifts)

CAWST is looking for individuals interested in setting up, hosting, and taking down our spring and summer festival booth and activities, to raise awareness and understanding of the challenges and solutions to access to safe water and sanitation.

The Position: Summer Festival Crew Member

 Purpose of the Role:

To help set up, host, and take down our fun and engaging CAWST booth at:

Please note: shifts for each festival are available. You will not be expected to be at the booth the entire time listed above.

Duties and Responsibilities:

  • Attend a training at the CAWST office (timing TBD)
  • Set up an engaging activity (such as the Poo Toss game, make your own filter, or a photo booth) that informs and engages people on the challenges and solutions of water and sanitation crisis
  • Talk with the festival attendees about CAWST’s model of development and how CAWST is addressing the water and sanitation crisis
  • Share ways to get involved with CAWST and information on Wavemakers and encourage sign ups for our newsletter or membership
  • Share content for live Tweeting during the events
  • Take down the display
  • Track and log volunteer hours with the CAWST volunteer coordinator

Orientation and Training:

  • An hour-long orientation is required. Timing to be determined based on availability.

Skills and Qualifications:

  • Familiar with CAWST
  • Friendly personality and keen to work with all ages
  • Passion to help CAWST spread the word about water & sanitation
  • Organized and reliable
  • Willingness to lift heavy items
  • Preference given to those with previous experience
  • Ideally based in Calgary, Okotoks and surrounding area

Department and Supervision: Public Engagement and Donor Initiatives


Application:

If you are already a CAWST volunteer, and you wish to apply for this volunteer position, you can sign up for a shift or contact the Volunteer Program Coordinator, Tori D’Avella, at volunteers@cawst.org or 403-243-3285 ext 259. If you are new to CAWST, please complete the volunteer sign up form and we will email you to confirm.

In your email, please tell us:

  1. If and how you’ve been involved with us in the past
  2. Your general availability for training (1 – 2 hours)

 

Additional comments:

All CAWST volunteers are invited to participate in a 4-day training workshop of their choice after completion of 40 volunteer hours. CAWST welcomes volunteers searching for work experience, and is happy to provide letters of reference to interested volunteers. 

Paint It Blue: Sharing Water Knowledge Coast to Coast and Beyond

Paint It Blue is an annual campaign we run to spark action around World Water Day and to share water knowledge far and wide. With your help, we did just that.

Canada, we want to thank you for all your efforts to Paint It Blue for World Water Day!

Paint It Blue is an annual campaign we run to spark action around World Water Day and to share water knowledge far and wide. With your help, we did just that.


-Galleria Trees on Stephen Avenue Paints It Blue in Calgary, AB. Photo credit: @cccaswell

It is our second year running Paint It Blue and we’re delighted by the growth of water knowledge and water action taken across Canada. This year, 28 Canadian landmarks lit up with blue light from coast to coast. Even those who could not light up offered alternatives, like Proclamations of World Water Day from the City of Victoria and the City of Calgary. And some businesses who caught wind of the campaign took action of their own – Kaffeeklatsch developed a blue latte to raise funds for CAWST, and Urban Thrift painted their display blue by featuring blue clothing and Paint It Blue buttons.


-Team from CAWST WET Centre, Ethiopian Kale Heywet Church Development Program (EKHCDP), in Ethiopia, proudly wearing their Paint It Blue buttons.

CAWST had our annual World Water Day event, shining a light on the action of youth Wavemakers to solve water, sanitation and hygiene challenges. From selling phosphate-free soaps, to raising funds for First Nations water issues in Canada, to travelling to Oaxaca to install biosand filters, Wavemakers are having a positive impact in their communities and globally through their action projects. Some teams are building on their projects from past years to grow the capacity within their schools to take action on water challenges. A huge thanks goes out to our event sponsors, Repsol and TELUS Spark, who made it possible to hold this event! Speaking of Paint It Blue buttons, we nearly ran out this year due to the enthusiasm of businesses and individuals to share them. Our volunteers took buttons all around Calgary to spread the word on water. Tal, our director of Public Engagement and Donor Initiatives, spread the enthusiasm globally, by taking buttons all the way to Ethiopia and sharing a piece of how we spread water knowledge in Canada with our clients. Tal shared a series of “follow the button” posts on social media that have inspired upcoming blog posts – stay tuned to learn more about how water knowledge is shared in Ethiopia by our local partners and WET Centre. 
CAWST was also invited to a variety of other World Water Day events. Inspired by Paint It Blue, SAIT held a new World Water Day event for students and faculty with CAWST as a speaker, and a display from Plastic Free YYC. We were also delighted to participate in YEG World Water Day, which featured speakers like Bob Sandford and many more.

 

Do you have the post-World Water Day blues?


-Arbour Lake School displays their action project at our World Water Day event at TELUS Spark.

Water World Water Day may be over, but we are always open to Painting It Blue! Contact us to get involved, discuss next year’s campaign or book a lunch and learn to share water knowledge within your organization or community.

You can also relive the good times by checking out our photo albums on Facebook. Did you get your blue-tiful picture taken at our photo booth? Find your photo, tag yourself and share it with your friends with the hashtags #WorldWaterDay and #PaintItBlue!

 

 


-Paint It Blue buttons and enthusiasm spread far and wide, including to our WET Centre partners in Ethiopia and people all along the way. We even reached new supporters as far away as Cork, in Ireland, who Painted It Blue for World Water Day!


Tori D’Avella is a Public Engagement Officer on the Public Engagement & Donor Initiatives. This is Tori’s first time leading the project team working on CAWST’s Paint It Blue campaign, which reached over 230,000 impressions on social media alone. She is passionate about inter-organizational partnership and systems change, which is the subject of the MSc she is currently pursuing. Tori assures us that her favourite colour is blue.

WASH Skills Development Organization Celebrates its Official Launch

WASH SDO, CAWST’s WET (Water Expertise and Training) Centre in Cambodia, has a new name, website and board of directors – and is officially launching with new energy!

They have a new name, new website, and new board of directors—but they’re still CAWST’s favorite team of Cambodian WASH professionals!


-WASH SDO Launch Celebration

This week, CAWST’s Naomi Mahaffy had the privilege of attending the official launch of WASH Skills Development Organization (WASH SDO) in Cambodia. CAWST has worked closely with this team since 2012. We are delighted to see how their skills, network, and impact continue to grow.

Six years ago, CAWST and Church World Services Cambodia (CWS) partnered to establish the WASH Training Resource Centre (WASH TRC) in Pnom Penh. With support from CAWST, the team at WASH TRC has created, adapted, and delivered numerous training and consulting services in Cambodia. These services help local governmental and nongovernmental organizations build the knowledge and skills required to implement effective water and sanitation programs in rural Cambodia. Last year, with support from WaterAid Cambodia, the team of trainers from WASH TRC decided to register as an independent local organization called WASH SDO.

Today’s launch is a celebration of the many years of work WASH SDO has committed to establish itself as a local organization with a strong network of partners and clients,” said Naomi. “WASH SDO staff created a fun and informative event. Their materials and presentations clearly explained the services they offer and the expertise they can provide. I was inspired by hearing local government and NGO staff share stories of how WASH SDO’s training and consulting services helped them implement better programs.

Naomi sits on WASH SDO’s board of directors, along with representatives from WaterAid, CWS, the World Health Organization, and two local organizations. As WASH SDO expands its services in Cambodia, CAWST will continue to support the team with training material development, technical information, and competency development.

Congratulations to WASH SDO on a successful launch! We wish you many more successes as you build the skills of WASH practitioners in Cambodia.

:  Follow WASH SDO on Facebook to stay up to date on the WET Centre’s exciting new programs, endeavours and achievements.


Naomi Mahaffy, BSC, MASC, is a Global Learning Advisor on the Training & Consulting team at CAWST. Her favourite Cambodian dish is Kuy teav, a delicious rice noodle soup.

CAWST in the News: Cisco

Coinciding with World Water Day, CISCO published an article about how technology can accelerate sustainable access to safe water.

CALGARY, March 23, 2018 — Coinciding with World Water Day, Cisco published an article on their Corporate Social Responsibility blog about how technology can accelerate sustainable access to safe water.

From their article “How Technology Can Accelerate Sustainable Access to Safe Water”:

We know the Sustainable Development Goals are bold, ambitious targets. We also know that technology can play a critical role in achieving these goals.
Organizations such as Akvo Foundation, Sweet Sense, and CAWST demonstrate the impact that technology can have in addressing water and sanitation challenges, and in helping realize SDG 6: to ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all.

CAWST is grateful to be funded the CISCO Foundation, supporting us to increase the efficiency and quality of our programs, reduce overall costs, and enable greater reach and scale of WASH initiatives around the world.